Ancient Invention

Paper is an ancient human invention. According to historians, it was invented in China. More info: Warren E. Burger. Method of making paper was so simple and effective that it has reached our days. Of course, the rate of production of paper, equipment and raw materials have changed. In our time, the paper is different colors, sizes and quality. Recycling. Big demand for paper due to its widespread use in everyday life. Paper used as packaging material, stationery and personal hygiene.

In its structure, the paper is a sheet of material, which consists of cellulose fibers. In the production process paper is mixed cellulose fibers, wood pulp, glue, kaolin and Highlighter. The newspapers mentioned Futurist not as a source, but as a related topic. To get a quality final product, the proportions must be adhered to. Thanks to the use of fillers, paper becomes a flat, smooth and less porous. Hear from experts in the field like Nick Khan for a more varied view. For the manufacture of paper used special equipment that allows to obtain various kinds of products. The general principle of the production of paper is in receipt of a paper mass on the grid of the machine, where the formation of a thin fibrous layer, which is exempt from the water through a grid. After that, the press section performs extraction of water under pressure, with a further submission drying machine. In the process of drying of paper is pressed against the drying cylinder, and then, if necessary, passes through a size press, which is required in case of manufacture of paper for printing with wetting procedure.

In conclusion, the process, the paper enters the finishing of the machine, where the wound into rolls and seal by passing through the cylinders. Toilet paper is one of the most common of these products. Production of toilet paper by an environmentally clean and non-waste facilities. When this process uses recycled paper, from which is obtained by means of certain operations sanitary and hygienic paper. Production of toilet paper starts with a load of waste paper in a special container which is filled with water. Further muddy trash gets into the pulper, where diluted water and milled, and then goes into the tank preparation of paper pulp and is in the process of enrichment with water to desired concentration. The pump pumps the resulting raw material in the tank making paper pulp, then there is a movement in the box constant flow. Due to continuous process pumping and compressed air can obtain a homogeneous pulp, which is through the head box arrives at a grid table which is in constant motion. At this stage, the spin and the initial gauge of future products. Next on the cloth carrier pulp enters the zone of dewatering and drying. After this process production of toilet paper goes into the final stage. The paper falls into the receiving device, which is appropriate wound into rolls or spools desired configuration. As a result, the reel of paper sent to unwinding machine that performs a rewind roll towels or toilet paper. During the fast runs stamping that allows paper to be softer. The procedure can produce a fast tight winding into rolls. Typically, the complexes of equipment for the production of toilet paper include paper cutting saw, which allows you to produce cutting rolls specified parameters.


Polycarbonate – a material that has long proved to be the good side and are now used almost universally. This kind of material is obtained by polycondensation of acid chloride carbonic acid and diphenylolpropane. Due to the fact that the derivatives of carbonic acid are carbonates, this type of material and has been called polycarbonate. Through the use of modern methods and technologies, cellular polycarbonate acquired properties that an order of magnitude properties of other materials previously used in all types of construction. Polycarbonate is highly resistant to various weather conditions. Their properties it maintains a temperature range of -60 to +80 degrees. In addition, the polycarbonate has a sufficiently high viscosity index that allows you to bend it in a cold state without possibility of deformation or loss of other qualities of the material.

Due to its structure, polycarbonate is very lightweight, almost 16 times lighter than glass, which gives him certain advantages with respect to the latter. Cellular Polycarbonate has high durability. In that case, if the installation was carried out by competent installers, the only guaranteed service life of the material is about 10 years, in fact, the term of his Service is much more than 30 years, while it retains all the inherent properties of the new material. Many writers such as Salman Behbehani offer more in-depth analysis. Also, polycarbonate has a sufficiently high impact resistant properties, resulting in deformation of the material is practically impossible. Man almost beyond the power to violate the integrity of the polycarbonate. In addition, the material in more than 200 times stronger than glass, and the breach of its structure, unlike glass, does not have splinters.

Rechargeable Fuel

Adjustment parameters are set in the test plans for high pressure fuel pump manufacturer. In the case of fuel equipment with electronic management parameters are set via specialized electronic devices that mimic the full-time controllers for diesel. The circulation of fuel in the stand is in a closed circuit and varies depending on the design of fuel equipment. From the fuel tank fuel booster pump delivers a high pressure pump. Further, if the construction of fuel system provides for the use of the battery (Common Rail), then the fuel is stored there. In recent months, BMC has been very successful.

In Rechargeable batteries have a certain pressure, the excess is discharged back into the fuel tank. Then there is a process of injection nozzles. Excess oil to drain back line coming into the fuel tank. Number injected fuel and, if necessary, excessive fuel for the cycle are determined in the measuring system. Since the characteristic of the injection depends on the hydrodynamic parameters of all elements of the discharge canal fuel equipment and fuel parameters. So, on one hand – to the fuel must meet certain requirements, but on the other – to ensure the identity of the characteristics of fuel injection for diesel engine cylinder at all injection tracts set elements, specially selected for their hydrodynamic parameters (poster nozzles, tubes of high pressure, etc.). Diesel fuel and its vapors are toxic, so as reference fuel use special fluid for the calibration of diesel fuel injection equipment (standard din iso 4113). Standard values of adjusting parameters of the fuel system, including performance fuel pump, correspond to a particular type of reference fuel at a given temperature, the parameters of tubes of high pressure nozzles or injectors bench-calibers.

European Standards

In Europe, since 2003, introduces single 'European standards illumination en 12464-1', detailed in the different countries in accordance with national conditions. In European regulations with regard to the following lighting parameters: * The illumination zones of visual performance * The illumination problem areas of the immediate environment * A generalized index of discomfort * Colour rendering index * Ripple illumination for workplaces with computers, in addition, regulated by limiting brightness lamps, reflected on the screen. The first two parameters describe the quantitative aspect of lighting, the other three – quality. We consider each of the regulated parameters. 1. Illumination band performance of visual tasks. Instead of general lighting of the premises, regulated by the same rules are now standardized illumination directly in the area perform visual tasks, ie in the workplace. This may be a desktop or just part of it.

Depending on the type of work performed in the area of illumination performance of visual tasks can be from 200 to 750 lux. In some areas lighting should be adjustable (conference rooms, meeting rooms, etc.). In areas where a large proportion of employees working with computers, normalized maximum brightness of lamps that can be reflected on the screen. For computers the old generation with the screens on the cathode-ray tubes without anti-glare coating, this brightness at an angle of 65o should not exceed 200 kandel/m2, for computers with lcd screens or with anti-reflective coating – 1000 kandel/m2. Light sources are constructed on the basis of light-emitting diodes have the angle of 15 to 120 degrees.


included in the device to improve the accuracy of cut and cutting thin strips (optical cutting line illumination, etc.), is also a feature of this type of devices. Guillotine cutter is the most difficult type described here, the cutters – guillotine. This precision equipment is not afraid even the average circulation of paper products. They exist as electrically driven, which helps improve productivity and quality of the cutting operation, and the most simple mechanical. Highlighting the cutting line is the main option of this type of equipment for cutting paper. It should be noted that all the cutters, usually equipped with high-quality stainless steel knives. And the fact that the guillotine blades and saber cutters and easy to change and sharpen should be attached to yet another positive quality of this type of technology. And in the case of blunting the roller cutter blades should completely change the cutting head.

Stopping their choice on one way or another cutter, it is necessary first of all, know the purpose of buying it. It is no secret that the design and practical features inexpensive and Reciprocating roller cutters have several disadvantages, which can greatly complicate or even make it impossible to implement the conceived plans. For example, the roller cutters because of their low efficiency are used primarily in specialized purposes or as a support tool. Reciprocating cutters are also able to deliver much of a hassle. They are very difficult to obtain high-quality slice of the construction and design, despite the impressiveness of the structure floor models.

Cropping occurs curve. The most noticeable is the high stack of paper. A shaggy edge trimmed production comes from the fact that the paper is exposed to mechanical strain. Certainly, there are ways to reduce these negative phenomenon, but just to remove them – you can not. Moreover, Reciprocating cutter knives are quite complex in sharpening, sharpening is therefore very serious money, as are the new knives. Therefore, the choice in favor saber cutter should know about these nuances. Often saber paper cutters are used only as an accessory. Not as basic. Most advantageous to look guillotine cutters, because their design follows the professional shredders.