Technical Designations

There is a considerable variety of steel pipes and on top, you think, what is unreal is difficult to understand all their guests, and other special kinds of signs, but it is not. For even more details, read what Viktor Mayer-Schönberger says on the issue. Let's try to sort out once and for all in this complex issue. There are a small number of categories of pipes and they are classified according to the method of production. A cast – made in special machines for the casting of steel pipes. Two pipes are manufactured from sheet steel, with further giving them the desired shape and weld on a joint – welded pipes.

3 Seamless – made a variety of drawing and rolling and extrusion of round billet. In turn, welded divided by production, to electric and cold. A cold-rolled seamless pipes are manufactured and hot-way. For more information see Michael Steinhardt. Further on what kind of steel pipe is shared by the nomenclature. The following are steel tubes that are often produced in the workplace.

Tubes for general and special purpose: Tubes for general and special purpose are divided into hot, hot and Welded Tubes profile: Profile pipes distinguish rectangular, flat-oval, square and other species. Pipes for drilling, fastening and operating wells Pipes for drilling, fastening and operating wells is divided into pump and compression, drilling, casing and exploration. Pipes and cast iron or steel pipes and cast iron can be divided into iron and steel. In addition to these there are steel pipes of different alloys of rare and nonferrous metal bearing, boiler. State standard defines the technical requirements and assortment of pipes, such as drill pipe with upset ends and couplings are determined by GOST 631-75. That is state standards (GOST) determines the size, steel and other regulatory value in the production of steel pipe. Approached all the time to consider an example: 102h8 tube station. 15CrMo drill with upset ends and couplings Ghost 631-75 102 is the outer diameter in mm, 8 is the wall thickness in mm, art. 15CrMo this brand of steel used in the manufacture of pipes. At the end of the state standard GOST 631-75, which sets the assortment and technical requirements fabrication of the pipe. Now you know how different steel pipes, which mean all the names in the notation, and you should not show difficulty in reading the technical names.

Google Filters Issuance

Why do computers and mobile phones packed with hundreds of functions that do not need 99%? Have recently been able to listen to a monologue Justin Rattner (Justin Rattner, CTO of Intel, the head of Intel Labs), in which he talked about artificial intelligence, computer continuum, and in general – how very soon the spacecraft will be to surf the Bolshoi Theater. Given that this is not science fiction writer and a senior official from Intel, possession of the latest research laboratories and strong finances, it is possible that under his leadership, all of the above (labeled Intel inside) are achievable. And what humanity does with all these technologies? They have become so commonplace and pervasive, that they simply ceases to pay attention. The first cars (in the Soviet Union – in general all) require the driver to be more an engineer and mechanic. Michael Steinhardt is actively involved in the matter. The first radios to be obligated not just a listener, but also a radio technician, and the first computers – and even a programmer. And now – what should the new, just bought a TV to watch the right channel? Insert the network cable to connect and choose from the menu select "Auto".

How exactly this happens – it does not matter, and do not need to know. All details of the numerous transformations of the signal, color coding, line and frame scan and synchronization – is completely hidden. The device is "just" working out, friendly and convenient. But the new century has brought a new phenomenon. Start Word and see the endless buttons and menu items – you know, as we all use it? And once enjoyed? Or more or less modern cell phone: his complete specification describes the support of various formats and features – everything you know to reduce? And all you need to do? Since the products of information technology-half of its capacity depend on the software (some – almost all), and write, produce and replicate it is easier and faster than the "hardware" – that modern programs are jam-packed with hundreds of features that not only do not need 99% to 99% of cases, but not even be detected in the wilds of their own kind.

Heating Design

The architectural design of private homes focusing on the design of the heating system. Properly design and install heating system will help professionals who specialize in this area. They help you select the project, it is suitable for your home. Since the design of heating systems can be divided into several stages. First, determine the type of coolant circulation. Circulation is a natural and enforced.

In the natural circulation pump is not used, which means that this type of circulation has a certain independence from the electricity. But at the same time by using the heating system with natural circulation has drawbacks: large diameter pipelines, adherence slope, there are difficulties in adjusting the heat, the inability to control some elements of the system. If there are no forced circulation problems, but it strongly depends on the source of energy. The landlord must, at the initial stage of design to choose the type of circulation, because this will depend on the range of devices, appliances and heating units. Second, during the design of the premises is necessary to provide openings in the walls, the floor that will be needed for the distribution of heating collectors, sewerage and water supply: country house heating, heating in the cottage.

Technological holes will hide all the elements of engineering systems at the same time provide access to them for maintenance and repair work without disrupting the design space. Third, choose a location for the boiler house and build a channel for the chimney. In addition to the chimney brickwork should pave the steel pipe to protect the brick from the condensate, which can occur when large temperature differences during the winter. Fourth, determine the number of sections of the radiator. To do this, calculate the number of square meters, which can warm up one section. The formula is simple: heat one section must be divided by 100. For example, calculate how many radiator sections you need for rooms of 16 m2. Determine how many meters obogreet one section of the radiator. To do this, heat equal to 199 divided by 100 Tues, the result is about 2 m?. Therefore for rooms of 16 m2 will take eight sections. If the room is a balcony or a room in the house corner, you will need to increase the number of partitions in two or three.

Technical Data Sheet

Typically, our customers to buy a shower, we will send by fax or e-mail, wiring diagram, this is his chosen kabiny.Delaetsya to prepare in advance the necessary conclusions and to avoid possible alterations. Installing a shower is in a room specially prepared for this, in strict compliance with these recommendations. WARNING! When preparing water for Communications connect the equipment you must install a mechanical water filters, with the degree of purification of 100 md. The water pressure in the water system should be in the range from 1.5 to 5 atm. In case of excess pressure you must install a pressure reducer water. Filters, RCD, pressure reducing water as standard equipment are not included.

Conclusions hot and cold water must have an internal thread and diameter. inches. Diameter sewer pipe 40 -50 mm.Esli conclusion sewage into the wall, the distance from finished floor to the center of the pipe must not exceed 50 mm. If the distance is longer, you have to do poddium. Poddium under the shower in the strict Order must be lined with tiles.

Connect the equipment to the mains must be performed without additional compounds, ie a separate cable from the electrical panel to the equipment. Cable should be copper, three-core, double insulation with a wire cross-section of 2.5 mm square. The output electric cable must be located in a place designated in the Technical Data Sheet and have a grounded receptacle. The cable must be connected to separate, two-pole machine, combined with the current device (RCD). The requirements for RCD: 220V – 240V, with leakage current 0.03 A, 16-25A. For the installation and subsequent maintenance of equipment need space for two rear sides of the cab not less than 50 cm, to provide access to all work sites and aggregates. The ceiling height in the room, prepared to install a shower enclosure should provide clearance between the roof and ceiling shower for at least 10-15 cm in maximum allowable temperature using acrylic shower stalls shall not exceed 60 degrees Celsius. Area for mounting a shower should be cleared of debris and various contaminants. All repairs and finishing work during installation must be necessarily completed, including finishing the ceiling. All communications should be hidden pad, or be removed in the decorative door. This will help avoid gapping product to the wall. Area for the installation should have no protrusions and borders. I hope this article will help you avoid errors and defects, which are sometimes faced by our clients.

Regulation

Thus, when tamping the way two people can shpalopodboykami to work with 2.4 or 6 jacks. Rams set to shpalnye boxes in pairs under each rail through 8 … 10 boxes. In the course of the rear pair of jacks consistently rearranged in 8 … 10 shpalnyh boxes next to the front of work (Detail the technology of production of various types of track works, using jacks and other MPI, including hydraulic, described in the applicable legislation, such as instructions for the current maintenance of railway track. – Moscow: Transport, 2000 1 Regulation and implementation of the basic technology works with the current contents of the path.

– Moscow: Transport, 1998. 2). Rihtovschiki with manual transmission and the executive motor rihtovschikov placed near the rail (the side opposite to the direction of the desired slight shift) so that the double-hinged arm and shovel were placed under his soles. If the surface of the ballast is contained in a good state, then the installation is not required to align rihtovschika ballast and remove it from the rail in shpalnom box. The executive bodies of both manual and motorized rihtovschikov set at an optimal angle to the horizon (defined almost as a function of the track panel weight, degree of compaction of ballast, the quantities required Sdvizhkov way, the number used in set viewed by rihtovschikov, etc.), so that does not support slip in ballast and not unduly raised her path (25 mm).

MeV Surface

In the design of any product want to make it practical, technologically advanced and durable. This is achieved by correct selection and the material, and an increase in precision manufacturing. However, loaded with details, or working in argessivnyh media exposed their work with the action of the destructive forces of friction and chemical corrosion, and therefore the question arises and surface protection products. Among all the modern methods of chemical heat processing of steel products, such as cementing, nitrocarburizing, carbonitriding and gas nitriding in ovens most efficient and technologically advanced method is the ion-plasma nitriding. The essence of this the method is controlled modification of the crystal lattice of the workpiece in the surface layer by ion implantation.

Ion implantation – is the introduction of a solid surface practically any ion, pre-overclocked to electromagnetic pole.Eti ions are introduced into the material to a depth of 0.01 to several tens of microns, creating a surface layer of a special strkuturnoe state. The thickness of modified layer depends on the ion energy, mass and mass of the target atoms. The ion energy can vary widely (depending on the material properties combined ion – target) 1 (keV) to several MeV (MeV). Besides the introduction of the ion in the target surface occurs without complying with the laws of classical thermodynamics, which determines the equilibrium processes such as diffusion. Office of the penetration depth ions in the surface layer by changing the ion beam energy and the number of ions entering the target per unit time (Fig. 1) Li-ion plasma nitriding (IPA) – a kind of physical-chemical treatment metal parts, tools and other equipment, allowing the product to saturate the surface layer of nitrogen in the nitrogen-hydrogen plasma at 500 0C.

The essence of the method of the IPA is that discharged to 200-300 Pa nitrogenous gaseous medium between the cathode, which are the workpieces, and the anode, which serves as the walls of the vacuum chamber is excited by the anomalous glow razryad.Imenno it generates reactive species ionization of molecules of the gas environment (ions and radicals). This provides a form on the surface of the workpiece of the nitrided layer consisting of a foreign – nitride zone and settling down beneath the diffusion zone. By changing the composition of the gas in the chamber, its pressure, working temperature and exposure time product in a cell, you can get layers of a given structure and phase composition, providing a strictly regulated properties of steels and alloys. Improving the properties of hardened surface provides the required combination of nitride and the diffusion layers, which seem to "grow" in the surface layer of core material. At the same characteristics and properties surface layer is completely determined by its chemical composition: the nitride layer is either the Y-phase (Fe4N), or E-phase (Fe2-3N). Layer with E-phase is a corrosion-resistant, and a layer of Y-phase of a durable and relatively malleable. In this case, depending on the purpose of processing, as a result of ion-plasma nitriding can get: a diffusion layer with a developed area of nitride, which provides protection against corrosion and friction running-in surfaces – for parts operating under friction, the diffusion layer without the nitride zone – for cutting and stamping tools and parts operating under conditions of alternating loads of wear at high pressures. Ion-nitriding improves plazmenennoe following product characteristics: wear resistance, fatigue endurance antizadirnye properties, heat resistance, corrosion resistance.

Pipe Bending

Copper or brass pipe with bending in the cold state, the molten resin is filled. Bending process is similar to that described above. Rosin after bending is smelted from the pipe ends, as at mid-heating pipes, filled with resin, the cleavage of her. Copper and brass tubes for bending in the cold able to anneal at a temperature of 600-700 C and cooled in air. Fillers for bending copper pipes in a cold resin and heated in – sand.

Fillers for the brass tubes are the same as that of a flexible copper tubes. Duralumin tube to a flexible annealed at 350 – 400 C and cooled in water. After this treatment, the tubes are bent well over two hours. With mass production of parts from tubes used hand-held Pipe-bending devices and beam bending, and bending large diameter pipes – special pipe bending machines and press. Recently, extensive use of flexible tube with a stretched piece and the heating currents high frequency. When bending the tubing is stretched preform is subjected to tensile stresses exceeding the yield strength of metal and then bend.

This process is carried out on the bending and rastyazhnyh machines with rotary table for Pipe bending planes, cars, marine and river vessels and other parts manufactured by this method have high strength. When bending pipes with heating by high frequency heating, bending and cooling occur sequentially and continuously in a special high-frequency setting, which consists of mechanical and electrical parts. The mechanical part of a machine for bending pipes, and electrical and electrical equipment consists of inducer. Installation allows bending pipes from 95 to 300 mm. The above method has several advantages: it provides a lower roundness Bends in pipes, high performance (4-5 times higher than the other way), the mechanization process. Are properly curved pipe, no dents, bulge and crease. The reasons for marriage in bending and straightening when bending metal marriage is most often seen in oblique bending and mechanical injuries treated surface as a result of improper marking or fixing the details in the grip up or down a road marking lines, as well as improper attacks. When you edit the main reasons for marriage are the dents, the marks of the hammer Hammer, Nick on the treated surface of the hammer. These causes are the result of a hammer, to whom there is a lively and Nick vyscherbiny, misuse attacks.

SVC Equipment

Stalagmometr ST-2 is designed to determine the surface tension of surfactant solutions by determining the amount of drops is squeezed out at the borders: the solution – SAW antipolyarnaya liquid or solution – SAS – air. Stalagmometriya – method of separation of drops is common in medical and pharmaceutical practice. The theoretical justification of this method is as follows. Formation of drops of liquid at flowing out of her small holes is the result of surface tension and gravity. For example, if the set of vertical tubes with a narrow capillary bore liquid seeping slowly, then at the end of the tube is formed slowly increasing in size drop. Increasing in size, the drop off when its weight becomes equal to the resistance to rupture the surface film, which supports the drop. Before the separation of drops at the end of the tube is formed constriction at which separation occurs drops.

Stalagmometr a glass tube with an extension of the middle and the bottom of the capillary, the extended portion is bounded by two marks. Put the tube in a beaker with test solution, using a rubber bulb delaying a solution to the instrument (the fluid level should be above the upper mark) and give a liquid drop by drop flow from stalagmometra in the cup. The exhaust velocity can be adjusted using a screw clamp. When the liquid level reaches the upper mark, start counting drops, counting continues until the bottom level of the label. Stalagmometr ST-2 is designed to determine surface tension of surfactant solutions by determining the amount of drops is squeezed out at the borders: the solution – SAS – antipolyarnaya liquid or surfactant solution – air.

Specifications: Power motor DSM-2 AC current, 220 Dimensions, mm 650h240h180 The delivery device includes: Stalagmometr assembly, a syringe kit, ea. 1 Instruction manual. 'Chemical' – a wide range of chemical products, equipment and appliances. Chemical products for industrial and laboratory supplies, organic and inorganic acids and bases, salts with organic and inorganic acids, organic solvents, indicators. The equipment necessary for full functioning of a modern laboratory equipment for nefteanaliza, chromatographic and electrochemical analysis equipment to analyze physico-chemical parameters of all media, as well as ancillary laboratory equipment for sampling and sample preparation, weighing equipment, thermostat and heating equipment, mixers, Electrical laboratory equipment. Hydrometer ADB-1, EBE-2 Viscometer, Cone spreadability of the CD-1, CTC Laboratory LGR-3 mixer LMR-1, OM-Drain 2, pycnometer P-1, instrument Vick, BM-6, SVC-01, KC 3, KC-5, SNS-2, Stalagmometr ST-1, unit KNP-2, CA cylinder stability-2 NTF-acid-OEDF acid, lime, borax, 5 water, 10 water, Mel, caustic soda technical, Polyelectrolyte MIC-402 and Silica gel IBC, KSKG, SHSMG, Sulfatsell -2 Sulfonol, Activated carbon, Mud powder, barite, dolomite weighting, CSSC, Neonol, saponified tall pitch VPRG reagent (dry hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile) Reapon, Sial, FHLS-M, GL-1 Graphite, Graphite lubricants, greases, thread and surfactant consignment note PKD-515, OT Wetting -7, OP-10, Penta-465, CMC, PAC-B, PAC-N SNPH, corrosion inhibitor Vikor.